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Baylor Scott & White Endocrinology Specialists McKinney

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Endocrine and metabolic disease care conveniently located in McKinney

 
 

Baylor Scott & White Endocrinology Specialists – McKinney is located in McKinney, TX. Vivienne Yoon, MDJennifer St. John, MD, and Sana Ullah, MD, are board certified in internal medicine, endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism.

At BSW Endocrinology Specialists – McKinney, we realize the importance of involving our patients in their treatment plan. We strive to offer innovative management and treatment options that are individualized according to our patient's specific condition.

At this time we are only accepting physician-to-physician referrals.

Pague su cuenta

Ofrecemos una forma fácil y segura de pagar su factura de HTPN en línea a través de MyBSWHealth.

Herramientas y recursos

Nuestros servicios están diseñados pensando en usted, por lo que administrar sus necesidades de atención médica es lo más sencillo posible.

  • Formularios para pacientes
  • Información de la cita
  • Mybswhealth
  • Pague su cuenta
  • Asistencia financiera
  • Seguro aceptado

Formularios para pacientes

Formularios de registro de pacientes nuevos

Formularios de Autorización

No revelamos su información médica sin su autorización.

Información de la cita

Recambios de recetas

Please have your pharmacy fax request for prescription refills to 469.800.5388.

Prepárese para su visita

Si cree que puede tener un trastorno endocrino o metabólico, haga una cita con su proveedor de atención primaria. A continuación encontrará información para ayudarlo a prepararse para su cita y qué esperar de su médico.

  • Escriba sus síntomas, incluso cuándo comenzaron y con qué frecuencia ocurren.
  • Enumere su información médica clave, incluidas otras afecciones para las que está siendo tratado y los nombres de los medicamentos, vitaminas o suplementos que esté tomando.
  • Registre detalles sobre su control reciente de la diabetes, si tiene diabetes. Las notas para su médico deben incluir el momento y los resultados de las pruebas recientes de azúcar en la sangre, así como el horario en el que ha estado tomando sus medicamentos, si corresponde.
  • Enumere sus hábitos diarios típicos, incluyendo el consumo de alcohol, las comidas y las rutinas de ejercicio.
  • Lleve a un familiar o amigo, si es posible. A veces puede ser difícil absorber toda la información que se le proporcionó durante una cita. Alguien que lo acompaña puede recordar algo que se perdió u olvidó.
  • Apunte las dudas para consultarlas con su médico. Crear su lista de preguntas por adelantado puede ayudarlo a aprovechar al máximo su tiempo con su médico.

Las preguntas que debe hacerle a su médico si tiene diabetes incluyen:

  • ¿Mis signos y síntomas se deben a la hipoglucemia?
  • ¿Qué es lo que más probablemente desencadena mi hipoglucemia?
  • ¿Necesito ajustar mi plan de tratamiento?
  • ¿Necesito hacer algún cambio en mi dieta?
  • ¿Debo hacer algún cambio en mi rutina de ejercicios?
  • ¿Qué más me recomiendan para ayudarme a controlar mejor mi afección?

Las preguntas que debe hacer si no le han diagnosticado diabetes incluyen:

  • ¿Es la hipoglucemia la causa más probable de mis signos y síntomas?
  • ¿Qué más podría estar causando estos signos y síntomas?
  • ¿Qué pruebas necesito?
  • ¿Cuáles son las posibles complicaciones de esta afección?
  • ¿Cómo se trata esta condición?
  • ¿Qué pasos de cuidado personal, incluidos los cambios de estilo de vida, puedo tomar para ayudar a mejorar mis signos y síntomas?
  • ¿Debo ver a un especialista?

Además de las preguntas que ha preparado para hacerle a su médico, no dude en hacer preguntas durante su cita.

Qué esperar de su médico

Es probable que un médico que lo atienda en busca de signos y síntomas de trastorno endocrino o metabólico le haga una serie de preguntas.

El médico puede preguntar:

  • ¿Cuándo notó por primera vez estos signos y síntomas?
  • ¿Cuándo ocurren típicamente sus signos y síntomas?
  • ¿Algo parece provocar sus signos y síntomas?
  • ¿Le han diagnosticado alguna otra afección médica?
  • ¿Qué medicamentos está tomando actualmente, incluidos los medicamentos recetados y de venta libre, así como las vitaminas y los suplementos?
  • ¿Cuál es tu dieta diaria típica?
  • ¿Bebes alcohol? Si es así, ¿cuánto?
  • ¿Cuál es tu rutina de ejercicio típica?

Nota: Si tiene diabetes, su médico también puede hacerle una serie de preguntas detalladas sobre el control de su diabetes. Le ayudará llegar a su cita con un registro reciente de los resultados de las pruebas de azúcar en sangre, los nombres y los horarios de los medicamentos, y cualquier cambio que haya notado en la frecuencia o gravedad de los síntomas relacionados con la diabetes.

Mybswhealth

MyBSWHealth es una herramienta en línea donde puede comunicarse con sus proveedores, programar una cita, acceder y administrar la salud de su familia.

Pague su cuenta

Ofrecemos una forma fácil y segura de pagar su factura de HTPN en línea a través de MyBSWHealth.

Asistencia financiera

En Baylor Scott & White Health, queremos ser un recurso para usted y su familia. Nuestro equipo de asesores financieros está aquí para ayudar. Lo alentamos a hablar con un miembro de nuestro equipo en cualquier momento, antes, durante o después de recibir la atención.

Seguro aceptado

Baylor Scott & White ha establecido acuerdos con varios tipos de seguros con el fin de garantizar que sus necesidades de salud estén cubiertas.

Diseases and Treatments

Baylor Scott & White Endocrinology Specialists – McKinney offers expertise and treatment options conveniently located near you.

  • Adrenal Disease
  • Evaluación de la aterosclerosis
  • Pruebas de densidad ósea
  • Calcium Disorders
  • Síndrome de Cushing
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Asesoramiento dietético
  • Endocrinología
  • Monitoreo de glucosa
  • Insulin Pump
  • Análisis de lipoproteínas / colesterol
  • Osteoporosis
  • Trastornos paratiroideos
  • Cáncer de tiroides
  • Trastornos de la tiroides

Adrenal Disease

The adrenal glands, located above the kidneys, are responsible for producing hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone, which help the body handle stress and fight illnesses.  The adrenal disease occurs when the adrenal glands fail to produce enough hormones.  This is treated by medication that restores hormones to the correct levels.  Symptoms of the adrenal disease include:

  • Pérdida de peso
  • Craving salt
  • Loss of appetite
  • Excessive fatigue

Evaluación de la aterosclerosis

What Is Atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is the thickening or hardening of the arteries caused by a buildup of plaque in the inner lining of an artery.  Plaque is made up of deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin.  As plaque builds up, the art e r y walls become thickened and stiff.  Atherosclerosis, progressive disease that may start as early as childhood.  However, it can progress rapidly.

​​What are the risk factors?

  • High cholesterol and triglyceride levels
  • Alta presion sanguinea
  • De fumar
  • Tipo 1 diabetes
  • Obesidad
  • Physical inactivity
  • High saturated fat diet

​​​​​What are the symptoms of atherosclerosis?

Signs and symptoms may develop gradually and may be few, as the plaque gradually builds up in the artery.  Symptoms may also vary depending on the affected artery.  However, when a major artery is blocked, signs and symptoms may be severe, such as those occurring with heart attack, stroke or blood clot.  The symptoms of atherosclerosis may look like other heart conditions; see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis. 

How is atherosclerosis diagnosed?

First, a complete medical history and physical exam will be performed.  You may also have one or more of these tests:

  • Cardiac catheterization. With this procedure, a long thin tube (catheter) is passed into the coronary arteries.  X-rays are taken after a dye is injected into an artery to locate the narrowing, blockages, and other abnormalities of specific arteries.
  • Doppler sonography.  A special probe is used to direct sound waves into a blood vessel to evaluate blood flow.  An audio receiver amplifies the sound of the blood moving through the vessel.  Faintness or absence of sound may mean there is a blockage.  This is used to identify narrowing of the blood vessels of the abdomen, neck, or legs.
  • Blood pressure comparison.   Comparing blood pressure measurements in the ankles and in the arms helps determine any constriction in blood flow.  Significant differences may mean blood vessels are narrowed due to atherosclerosis.
  • MUGA/radionuclide angiography.   This is a nuclear scan to see how the heart wall moves and how much blood is expelled with each heartbeat, while the person is at rest.
  • Thallium/myocardial perfusion scan.  This is a nuclear scan given while the person is at rest or after exercise that may reveal areas of the heart muscle that are not getting enough blood. 
  • Computerized tomography or CT.  This is a type of X-ray test that can see if there is coronary calcification that may suggest a future heart problem.    

​​How is atherosclerosis treated?

Your doctor will figure out the best treatment based on:

  • Your age
  • Your overall health and medical history
  • How sick you are
  • How well you can handle specific medications, procedures, or therapies
  • How long the condition is expected to last
  • Your opinion or preference

Treatments may include:

Lifestyle changes - You can change some risk factors for atherosclerosis such as smoking, high cholesterol levels, high blood sugar (glucose) levels, lack of exercise, poor dietary habits, and high blood pressure.

Medicines that may be used to treat atherosclerosis include:

  • Antiplatelet medicines.  These are medicines used to decrease the ability of platelets in the blood to stick together and cause clots.  Aspirin, clopidogrel, ticlopidine, and dipyridamole are examples are antiplatelet medicines.
  • Anticoagulants.  Also called blood thinners, these medicines work differently from antiplatelet medicines to decrease the ability of the blood to clot.  Warfarin and heparin are examples of anticoagulants. 
  • Cholesterol-lowering medicines.  These are medicines used to lower fats (lipids) in the blood, particularly low-density lipid (LDL) cholesterol.   Statins are a group of cholesterol-lowering medicines.  They include simvastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin among others.  Bile acid sequestrants - colesevelam, cholestyramine and colestipol - and nicotinic acid are the other types of medicine that may be used to reduce cholesterol levels.  Fibrates may also be prescribed to help improve your cholesterol and triglyceride levels. 
  • Blood pressure medicines.   Several different groups of medicines act in different ways to lower blood pressure.

​​Coronary angioplasty - With this procedure, a long thin tube (catheter) is thread through a blood vessel to the heart where a balloon is inflated to create a bigger opening in the vessel to increase blood flow.  Although angioplasty is done in other blood vessels elsewhere in the body, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) refers to angioplasty in the coronary arteries to permit more blood flow into the heart.  There are several types of PCI procedures, including:

  • Balloon angioplasty.   A small balloon is inflated inside the blocked artery to open the blocked area.
  • Atherectomy.  The blocked area inside the artery is shaved away by a tiny device on the end of a catheter.
  • Laser angioplasty.  A laser is used to vaporize the blockage in the artery.
  • Coronary artery stent.   A tiny mesh coil is expanded inside the blocked artery to open the blocked area and is left in place to keep the artery open.  

​​Coronary artery bypass - Most commonly referred to as bypass surgery, this surgery is often done in people who have angina (chest pain) due to coronary artery disease (where plaque has built up in the arteries).  During the surgery, a bypass is created by grafting a piece of a healthy vein from elsewhere in the body and attaching it above and below the blocked area of a coronary artery.  This lets blood flow around the blockage.  Veins are usually taken from the leg or from the chest well.  Sometimes more than one artery needs to be bypassed during the same surgery.  

What are the complications of atherosclerosis?

Plaque buildup inside the arteries reduces the blood flow.  A heart attack may occur if the blood supply is reduced to the heart.  A stroke may occur if the blood supply is cut off to the brain.  Severe pain and tissue death may occur if the blood supply is reduced to the arms and legs.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

If your symptoms get worse or you have new symptoms, let your healthcare provider know.

Pruebas de densidad ósea

What Is A Bone Density Test?

A bone density test, also known as bone mass measurement or bone mineral density test, measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density.  These tests are painless, noninvasive, and safe.  They compare your bone density with standards for what is expected in someone of your age, gender, and size, and to the optimal peak bone density of a healthy young adult of the same gender.  Bone density testing can help to:

  • Detect low bone density before a fracture occurs
  • Confirm a diagnosis of osteoporosis if you have a fracture
  • Predict your chances of fracturing in the future
  • Determine your rate of bone loss or monitor the effects of treatment if the test is conducted at intervals of a year or more

​What Are Some Reasons For Having A Bone Density Test?

If you have one or more of the following risk factors for osteoporosis, you may want to consider having a bone density test:

  • You have already experienced a bone fracture that may be the result of thinning bones.
  • Your mother, grandmother, or another close relative had osteoporosis or bone fractures.
  • Over a long period of time, you have taken medication that speeds up bone loss, such as corticosteroids for treating rheumatoid arthritis, or other conditions, or some anti-seizure medications.
  • You have a low body weight, a slight build, or a light complexion.
  • You have a history of cigarette smoking or heavy drinking.

Calcium Disorders

Calcium is found throughout the body, and it works to strengthen teeth and bones, signal cell processes, aid in muscle contraction, and more.  Calcium disorders occur when the body has too little or too much calcium.  A deficit of calcium is called hypocalcemia, which occurs at the failure of parathyroid, a gland located near the thyroids that regulate calcium levels by secreting parathyroid hormones.  A surplus of the parathyroid hormone, as well as a malignant tumor in the body or excessive vitamin D, can lead to hypercalcemia, which also alters the correct amount of calcium.  Symptoms of these disorders include:

  • Náusea
  • Lethargy
  • Bone pain
  • Polyuria

Mild cases may exhibit none of these symptoms, while severe cases may cause an irregular heartbeat, muscle spasms, and severe low blood pressure.  These disorders are treated by adjusting calcium intake, whether through the diet or through intravenous injections. 

Síndrome de Cushing

Cushing's Syndrome occurs when the levels of cortisol in the body are too high. Cortisol is a hormone that regulates blood pressure, insulin levels, and responses to stress.  Cushing's Syndrome can be caused by extended exposure to corticosteroid medication or by a tumor. It causes weight gain in the upper body and softening and rounding of the face.  Other symptoms include easy bruising, headaches, and fatigue. Depending on the cause, it is treated by adjusting medicine intake or removing a tumor.  Medication adjustment should not be undertaken alone; ask your healthcare provider for help.

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes is a disease that causes consistently high blood sugar because the body fails to process or produce insulin.  Insulin enables the body to use or store energy from food.  There is three type of diabetes:

  • Tipo 1 diabetes
  • Tipo 2 diabetes
  • Diabetes gestacional

Type 1 Diabetes requires regular administration of insulin and careful regulation of blood sugar through eating and exercise.  

Type 2 Diabetes is the most common - 90% of diabetes patients have Type 2- and it is treated with adjustments to diet, exercise, and, in some cases, oral medication.

Gestational Diabetes occurs when women have high blood glucose levels during pregnancy.  Though gestational diabetes sometimes requires medication or insulin treatments, it is often treated with lifestyle changes and careful monitoring. 

Asesoramiento dietético

Dietary Counseling assists in prevention or treatment of nutrition-related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.

Talk to your healthcare provider for more information.

Endocrinología

Our physicians provide consultation, diagnosis, and management of endocrine and metabolic diseases. 

Endocrine disorders involve the body's over -or- underproduction of certain hormones, while metabolic disorders affect the body's ability to process certain nutrients and vitamins.

Los procedimientos y tratamientos que ofrecemos incluyen:

  • Evaluación de la aterosclerosis
  • Pruebas de densidad ósea
  • Asesoramiento dietético
  • Monitoreo de glucosa
  • Colocación y mantenimiento de la bomba de insulina.
  • Análisis de lipoproteínas / colesterol

Las condiciones que tratamos incluyen:

  • Mineralización de calcio y esqueleto y metabolismo
  • Diabetes mellitus y obesidad.
  • Enfermedades de la glándula paratiroides.
  • Trastornos que afectan el metabolismo del colesterol y las lipoproteínas en relación con la aterosclerosis.
  • Trastornos que afectan la hipófisis, la tiroides, la corteza suprarrenal y los órganos reproductivos.
  • Enfermedades de las glándulas suprarrenales.
    • Síndrome de Cushing
    • La enfermedad de Addison
  • Hipertensión debida a causas endocrinas.
  • Hipotiroidismo
  • Cáncer de paratiroides
  • Cáncer de tiroides

Endocrine disorders include hypothyroidism, diseases of the parathyroid gland, diabetes mellitus,  and ovarian dysfunction (including polycystic ovary syndrome ), among others.  Some examples of metabolic disorders include hyperlipidemia and rickets.

Monitoreo de glucosa

What Is Blood Glucose Monitoring?

Blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) reflect how well diabetes is being controlled and how well the plan of care (diet, exercise, and medication) is working.  If the blood sugar levels are consistently under control (with levels near normal), diabetes complications may be reduced or even prevented.


How Can Blood Sugar Levels Be Checked?

In proper diabetes management, checking blood glucose levels regularly is very important with current methods of blood sugar monitoring requiring a blood sample.  Monitoring blood sugar can be done at home with a variety of invasive devices to obtain the blood sample (invasive means the penetrations of body tissue with a medical instrument).

A drop of blood is obtained through a finger prick to use on a test strip that is then measured in a monitor.  A finger prick can be done with a small lancet (special needle) or with a spring-loaded lancet device that punctures the fingertip quickly.  The strip goes into the meter first, that a drop of blood is placed on the tip of the strip that reads the blood sugar level.

Today, there are many types of monitors on the market, ranging in price, ease of use, size, portability, and length of testing time.  Each monitor requires its own type of testing strip.  If correctly used, blood glucose monitors have been found to be accurate and reliable, and most monitors provide results within seconds.  For visually or physically impaired, there are monitors that give verbal testing instructions and verbal test results.  There are glucose monitors available that provide verbal instructions in Spanish and other languages as well.

People with diabetes may have to check their blood sugar levels up to 4 times a day.  Blood sugar levels can be affected by several factors, including the following:

  • Diet
  • Diabetes medication
  • Ejercicio
  • Estrés
  • Illness 

Certain blood glucose monitors are equipped with data-management systems, which means your blood glucose measurement is automatically stored each time.  Some physician offices have computer systems compatible with these data-management systems, which allows the blood sugar level recordings, and other information, to be transferred electronically.  This can be done on your home computer as well.  One advantage of a data management system is the ability to plot a graph on the computer depicting patterns of blood sugar levels.


What Are Healthy Blood Sugar Level Ranges?

Blood sugar levels over 200 mg/dl (mg/dl=milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood) or under 70 mg/dl are considered unhealthy.  High blood sugar levels that are about 200 mg /dl may be a sign of inadequate levels of insulin, caused by overeating, lack of exercise, or other factors.  Low blood sugar levels that are below 70 mg/dl may be caused by taking too much insulin, skipping or postponing a meal, over-exercising, excessive alcohol consumption, or other factors.  A good range for most people is between 70 and 130 mg/dl.   

Most common symptoms of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) include:

  • Rapid, unexplained weight loss
  • Feeling sick
  • Intense thirst
  • Increased urination
  • Vómitos
  • Fatiga
  • Blurred vision
  • Desmayo

​​​ *Each individual may experience symptoms differently or no symptoms at all.

Most common symptom of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) include:

  • Hunger
  • Fatiga
  • Shakiness
  • Dolores de cabeza
  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Sudden moodiness or behavior changes
  • Sweating
  • Pale skin color

Sometimes, none of these warning symptoms appear before a person loses consciousness from low blood glucose; the loss of consciousness is called hypoglycemia unawareness.

*Each individual may experience symptoms differently or no symptoms at all.

Insulin Pump

An insulin pump is a small computerized device that delivers insulin in two ways:

  • In a steady measured and continuous dose (the "basal" insulin)
  • As a surge ("bolus") dose, at your direction, around mealtime.

Doses are delivered through a catheter, a flexible plastic tube, and inserted through the skin into the fatty tissue with the aid of a small needle and is taped in place.

The insulin pump is not an artificial pancreas since you still have to monitor blood glucose levels, but pumps can help some patients achieve better control, and many prefer this continuous system of insulin delivery over injections.

Pumps can be programmed to release small doses of insulin continuously, or a bolus dose close to mealtime to control the rise in blood glucose after a meal.  This delivery system most closely mimics the body's normal release of insulin.

Análisis de lipoproteínas / colesterol

Controlling Your Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a waxy substance that travels in your blood through blood vessels.  When you have high cholesterol, it builds up in the walls of the blood vessels, making the vessels more narrow.  Blood flow decreases, creating a greater risk for having a heart attack or a stroke.

Good and Bad Cholesterol

Lipids are fats, and blood is mostly water.  Fat and water don't mix, so our bodies need lipoproteins (lips inside a protein shell) to carry the lipids through the bloodstream.  There are two main kinds of lipoproteins:

  • LDL (low-density lipoprotein) is known as "bad cholesterol."  It mainly carries cholesterol delivering it to the body cells.  Excess LDL cholesterol will build up in artery walls, increasing your risk for heart disease and stroke.
  • HDL  (high-density lipoprotein) is known as "good cholesterol."  This protein shell collects excess cholesterol that LDLs have left behind on blood vessel walls, decreasing your risk of heart disease and stroke. 

​​Controlling Cholesterol Levels

Total cholesterol includes LDL and HDL cholesterol, as well as other fats in the bloodstream.  If your total cholesterol is high, follow the steps below to help lower your total cholesterol level:

  • Eat less unhealthy fat
    • Cut back on saturated fats and trans fats by selecting lean cuts of meats, low-fat dairy, and using oils instead of solid fats.  Limit baked goods, processed meats, and fried foods.  A diet that's high in these fats increases your bad cholesterol.
    • Eat about 2 servings of fish per week.  Most fish contain omega-3 fatty acids which help lower blood cholesterol.
    • Eat more whole grains and soluble fiber such as oat bran which lowers overall cholesterol.  
  • Be Active
    • Choose an activity you enjoy.  Walking, swimming and riding a bike are some good ways to be active.
    • Start at a level where you feel comfortable, increasi​ng your time and pace a little each week.
    • Work up to 40 minutes of moderate to high-intensity physical activity at least 3 to 4 days per week.
    • Remember, some activity is better than none. 
    • If you haven't been exercising regularly, start slowly.  Check with your physician to make sure the exercise plan if right for you.
  • Quit smoking.  By quitting, you can improve your lipid levels and lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.
  • Weight management.  If you are overweight or obese, your healthcare provider can work with you to lose weight and lower your BMI (body mass index) to a normal or near-normal level.  Making diet changes and increasing physical activity can help.
  • Take medication as directed.  Many patients need medication to get their LDL levels to a safe level.  Medications to lower cholesterol levels are effective and safe, but taking medication is not a substitution for exercise or watching your diet.  Your physician can tell you whether you might benefit from a cholesterol-lowering medication. 

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease where bones tend to break easily because of a decreased bond mass index.  As people age, their bones lose density faster than they create it.  This process can be sped up by using tobacco, being sedentary, or drinking too much alcohol.  Though osteoporosis is often not noticed until a bone is broken, it is sometimes recognized by loss of height, back pain, or stooped posture.  Treatments include exercising muscles, which increases bone mass density and, in some cases, medication or fall prevention protectors. 

Trastornos paratiroideos

The parathyroid glands, located behind the thyroid glands, are responsible for regulating the body's calcium levels. Calcium strengthens the bones, aids in muscle contraction, helps electrical conduction in the heart, and more. This disease occurs when the parathyroid hormone disrupts the levels of calcium in the body by producing too much or too little of the hormone. Hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is too much of the hormone and is often treated by surgical removal of the glands. Hypoparathyroidism is a deficiency of parathyroid hormones. Its symptoms include muscle cramps and spasms, and the condition is treated with vitamin D and calcium supplements.

Cáncer de tiroides

Thyroid cancer is when the thyroids—glands located in the lower neck—develop malignant cancer. Most thyroid cancers respond well to treatment—a typical treatment includes surgery to remove the thyroid, radiation, and a hormone pill, each a few weeks apart from each other. If not treated, however, thyroid cancer can spread to the rest of the body. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, swollen lymph nodes, and a lump in the lower neck that can be felt through the skin. 

Trastornos de la tiroides

The thyroids, small glands located in the lower neck, can have a range of disorders. One of these is Graves’ disease, which occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroids, causing them to overproduce metabolism-regulating hormones. Hashimoto’s disease is when the immune system attacks the thyroids and destroys them. These diseases are treated with hormone pills and, in severe cases, surgery to remove the thyroid glands. Women may deal with specific thyroid issues, such as hypothyroidism during pregnancy (when the thyroids produce low amounts of hormones) or postpartum thyroiditis (when the thyroids are overactive after pregnancy).

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